Degrees of Randomness in Rerandomization Procedures

Connor Jerzak | Rebecca Goldstein

Paper Code

Abstract: Randomized controlled experiments are susceptible to imbalance on covariates predictive of the outcome. Rerandomization and deterministic treatment assignment are two proposed solutions. This paper explores the relationship between rerandomization and deterministic assignment, showing how deterministic assignment is an extreme case of rerandomization. The paper argues that in small experiments, both fully randomized and fully deterministic assignment have limitations. Instead, the researcher should consider setting the rerandomization acceptance probability based on an analysis of covariates and assumptions about the data structure to achieve an optimal alignment between randomness and balance. This allows for the calculation of minimum p-values along with valid permutation tests and fiducial intervals. The paper also introduces tools, including a new, open-source R package named fastrerandomize, to implement rerandomization and explore options for optimal rerandomization acceptance thresholds.


Connor T. Jerzak, Rebecca Goldstein. Degrees of Randomness in Rerandomization Procedures. ArXiv Preprint, 2023.
  title={Degrees of Randomness in Rerandomization Procedures},
  author={Jerzak, Connor T. and Rebecca Goldstein},
  journal={ArXiv Preprint},

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